Roman House Churches
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Roman House Churches
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Jewish Gentile Mixture

Roman House ChurchesRoman house churches were often of a Jewish Gentile mixture of believers who met separately in different places. This historical reality created certain tensions and required a response from Paul in Romans 14.1 advises, "Accept the one whose faith is weak, without quarreling over disputable matters. One person's faith allows them to eat anything, but another, whose faith is weak, eats only vegetables." He also suggests in Romans 14.5, "One person considers one day more sacred than another; another considers every day alike." In effect, Saint Paul's letter is saying that all believers should respect one another's ethnic, religious and social diversity and live together in unity.

Priscilla and Aquila

There is currently no accurate way to determine how many Roman house churches existed in Paul's day. Most of the evidence appears in Romans 16, which contains Paul's greetings and commendations of several individuals. He writes, "I commend to you our sister Phoebe, a deacon of the church in Cenchreae. I ask you to receive her in the Lord in a way worthy of his people and to give her any help she may need from you, for she has been the benefactor of many people, including me. Greet Priscilla and Aquila, my co-workers in Christ Jesus. They risked their lives for me. Not only I but all the churches of the Gentiles are grateful to them." Some of the named individuals in this chapter are simply Paul's friends and co-workers, but when Paul names certain individuals and referred to "other" people in the same verse, he may have churches in mind. Arthur G. Patzia in "The Emergence of the Church - Context, Growth, Leadership, and Worship" suggest the possibilities include,

In all, it has been suggested that there were over 5000 Roman house churches at that time!

Roman House Churches

Household GardenFive house churches in the Roman congregation are probably centered on the city described by the Apostle Paul. The house church there did not operate like the Corinthian church. Robert Banks (1939-present), an Australian Biblical scholar, explains the rather unusual greeting in Romans 1.7, "To all God's beloved in Rome, who are called to be saints" instead of the normal "church" or "churches" indicated a difference. Saint Paul writes about "church or churches" in other letters for example 1 Corinthians 1.2 "to the church of God in Corinth" or Galatians 1.2 "to the churches in Galatia." Banks argues that since "ecclesia" for Saint Paul "cannot refer to a group of people scattered throughout a locality unless they all gather together, he couldn't describe all the Christians in Rome as Roman faith households." E. Earl E. Ellis (1926-2010) the American Bible scholar in "Pauline Theology - Ministry and Society" also argues that "the whole church of Rome never assembled in one place."

Distinguished Households

In Romans 16, another house church in Rome may be seen. The "brothers" with Hermas may refer to a Roman house used both for Christian workers and for congregational meetings. The believers "from Caesar's house" in Philippians 4.21-22, "Greet all God's people in Christ Jesus. The brothers and sisters who are with me send greetings. All God's people here send you greetings, especially those who belong to Caesar's household. The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ be with your spirit. Amen." Note that "amen" is absent in some manuscripts. The Roman synagogues of the Augustinians and the Agrippesians are probably each a congregation centering on the freedmen and slaves of those two houses and meeting there. It is likely that they belong to Narcissus, the wealthy freedman and confidant of Emperor Claudius (10-54 AD) who was the first Roman Emperor to be born outside Italy, and to Aristobulus, the brother of Herod Agrippa I, (BC 11-44 AD) who was King of Judea between 41-44 AD and who had lived in Rome. Upon their deaths, their households presumably become part of the imperial holdings but continue to be identified by their names in Romans 16.14. Various Roman houses were known to have been run by either Jewish or Gentile believers.

"Roman House Churches"
by Ron Meacock © 2019

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